Dio è anche madre, Wojtyla come Luciani

21 gennaio 1999 :: Corriere della Sera, di Vittorio Messori

Dio è padre e madre al tempo stesso. Il concetto, già espresso nel ’78 da Giovanni Paolo I, è stato ripreso ieri da papa Wojtyla nell’udienza del mercoledì. Occorre ammetterlo: chi non solo «studia» le questioni religiose, ma partecipa personalmente della prospettiva cristiana, resta sorpreso. Sorpreso, dico, dell’emozione con cui il media-system accoglie qualunque accenno alla -come dire?- «bisessualità» divina. Ancora non riusciamo a vedere che ci fosse di sconvolgente in ciò che Papa Luciani ricordò, giustamente, come cosa ovvia, di sfuggita (restando poi, ci dicono, interdetto lui per primo dall’eco suscitata): Dio, cioè, è Padre ma è anche Madre. Così, non vacilliamo certo per l’emozione, trovando un cenno «all’amore materno» in Dio, in uno degli innumerevoli discorsi di Giovanni Paolo II. In effetti il Vangelo ci svela che la differenza sessuale è cosa transeunte, necessaria per la procreazione, per la trasmissione della vita. Dunque, sino alla fine della storia, quando «Dio sarà Tutto in tutti». Alla insidiosa domanda dei sadducei, Gesù replica con chiarezza: «Voi vi ingannate, non conoscendo né le Scritture né la potenza di Dio. Alla risurrezione, infatti, non si prende né moglie, né marito, ma si è come angeli nel Cielo…» (Mt 22, 29 s.). Maschile e femminile sono «creazioni» di un Creatore che ne è al di là, poiché in Lui ogni realtà convive, in una sintesi totale e suprema. Se -come ci ricorda più volte Giovanni evangelista- «Dio è Agape», è Amore, questo Amore con la maiuscola, da cui ogni amore deriva, comprende ovviamente in Sé quanto, nella nostra visione umana, attribuiamo o all’uomo o alla donna. Solo per convenzione, per nostro difetto di linguaggio, chiamiamo «Padre» Colui che, per il catechismo, è la Prima Persona della Trinità. In realtà, da sempre il credente consapevole della sua fede sa che «il Datore di ogni vita» è «prima» e «oltre» ogni distinzione terrena: dunque, è tanto Padre quanto Madre. A conferma della doverosa «confusione delle lingue», la Terza Persona, lo Spirito Santo, è indicato al maschile solo nelle lingue moderne: in ebraico, lo Spirito è di genere femminile. Quanto a Gesù, Seconda Persona del dogma trinitario, la verità e la radicalità della sua incarnazione esigevano, ovviamente, la scelta di un sesso. Fu quello maschile; ma non dimentichiamo -parola di San Paolo- che il «Corpo del Cristo» è una realtà femminile, la Chiesa. A un cattolico, forse, può anche dispiacere ammetterlo: ma fu Martin Lutero, in un memorabile sermone (Christus, gallina nostra) a richiamare vigorosamente l’attenzione su una «scandalosa» identificazione. Quella di Gesù che definisce se stesso «una chioccia che riunisce i pulcini sotto le ali» (Mt. 23, 37). È forse ipotizzabile qualcosa di più «femminile» che una chioccia? Certo: la maschilità del Cristo non è, per il credente, così fittizia. E in Cielo, per la fede nella Resurrezione, vive e vivrà per sempre un corpo d’uomo (nonché uno di donna, almeno per cattolici e ortodossi, che credono nell’assunzione di Maria «in corpo ed anima»). Ma questa realtà non è tale da incrinare la compresenza, nell’Essenza divina, di ciò che, finché dura l’umanità, noi tendiamo a distinguere. Del resto, già in terra è possibile cogliere un riflesso dell’unità celeste: chi ha avuto il dono di frequentare coloro che hanno preso il Vangelo radicalmente sul serio (e che, per intenderci, chiamiamo «santi», canonizzati o no che siano) ha sperimentato come il loro modo di amare sia «totale». Come, cioè -pur al di fuori di ogni ambiguità- in essi convivano il «padre» e la «madre», la fortezza virile e la dolcezza muliebre. Insomma, lo ripetiamo: non ci riesce proprio di stupirci udendo ciò che, da cristiani, ci sembra l’ovvietà stessa.

© Corriere della Sera

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