La tentazione sbagliata

25 maggio 2002 :: Corriere della Sera, di Vittorio Messori

Da quel paradiso dove certamente si trova, il buon abbé Jean Carmignac deve guardare compiaciuto ai ritocchi che la Chiesa ha apportato anche al Padre Nostro. Un compiacimento più che giustificato: quella che, non a caso, è chiamata oratio dominica, la preghiera del Signore, è uno dei cuori del Nuovo Testamento. Ebbene: ebbi il privilegio di essere il solo giornalista con cui abbia mai accettato di parlare don Carmignac, nel suo romitorio sotto il tetto di una parrocchia del centro di Parigi. Il mitico, inaccessibile abbé, morto una decina di anni fa, era il maggiore specialista al mondo dei manoscritti del Mar Morto ed era fondatore, direttore nonché unico redattore della Revue de Qumran, un semestrale di rigore nelle più prestigiose biblioteche religiose del pianeta.

Don Carmígnac era amato da molti ma anche detestato da altrettanti, cioè dai sostenitori dell’esegesi biblica ancora dominante, secondo la quale i vangeli sarebbero compilazioni tardive, successive alla distruzione di Gerusalemme, nel 70.
Il prete eremita invece, aveva tradotto il greco del Nuovo Testamento in ebraico e in aramaico, giungendo a una conclusione sconvolgente, in grado di far crollare intere biblioteche. Per Carmignac, cioè, i tre primi vangeli, i sinottici, erano stati scritti in una lingua semitica. Dunque, quei testi che per molti sarebbero storicamente inattendibili perché frutto di una lunga e oscura elaborazione, si rivelerebbero come cronache di contemporanei, scritte a ridosso degli eventi e poi tradotti in un «greco di base».

Ma è proprio questa conoscenza del retroterra linguistico dei vangeli che provocava al vecchio, sapiente, mitissimo abbé una sofferenza psicologica talmente profonda datarsi addirittura fisica. Nel lungo colloquio che, con straordinario privilegio, mi concesse quasi in premio di certi miei libri su Gesù che non gli erano dispiaciuti -pur essendo divulgativi-, vidi il dolore sul suo volto mentre mi parlava della sua pena quotidiana. Lui, cioè, prete fedelissimo, era costretto a pronunciare più volte al giorno quella che considerava un’autentica bestemmia. Proprio nel Pater Noster, nella più solenne delle preghiere cristiane, gridava vendetta al Cielo quel ne non ci indurre in tentazione». «E’ intollerabile, monsieur, è del tutto intollerabile, attribuire a Gesù una prospettiva secondo la quale Dio Padre avrebbe, infondo, la caratteristica del diavolo stesso. Anche Dio, dunque sarebbe un tentatore, preparerebbe agli uomini trappole perchè cadano in peccato e soltanto la preghiera potrebbe sperare di allontanare la sua insidia.

Cosa mi ripeterci, ceto, il vecchio, tenero e coriaceo don Carmignac, che al problema di quell’errata traduzione del Padre Nostro aveva dedicato un libro di sbalorditiva erudizione, senza per altro essere ascoltato da chi di dovere, nella Chiesa. Basandosi, sull’originale semitico nascosto sotto il testo greco, proponeva come davvero fedele alte parole di Gesù un «non permettere che soggiaciamo alla tentazione (del Maligno)». La sua insistenza e la sua pazienza sono state premiate, seppure dopo la morte. Conoscendo il suo rigore, temo che non l’avrebbe soddisfatto del tutto quel «e non ci abbandonare alla tentazione» introdotto ora anche nei testi liturgici. In ogni caso, è già molto: nessun cristiano, pronunciando l’orazione più cara, dovrà più temere di bestemmiare piuttosto che pregare, come non si stancava di gridare, dal suo romitorio, uno tra i maggiori biblisti del secolo.

© Corriere della Sera

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